- – capital of the department, famous for its beautiful white colonial buildings
- – small mountain village with hot springs
- – former prison island in the Pacific Ocean, now a nature reserve with abundant wildlife like monkeys, snakes, whales and seaturtles, and excellent diving conditions
- – small town
- – famous for its underground burial chambers that are an UNESCO World Heritage site
There are airports in Popayán, Guapi and Timbiquí.
Also the airport in Cali is close to the northern part of the department (Santander de Quilichao, Caloto, Puerto Tejada, etc).
Route 25 which runs north-south and is part of the PanAmerican Highway crosses Cauca and has major exits in Popayán.