HainanChina, south of Guangdong province and across the Gulf of Tonkin from Vietnam. "Hainan" literally means "South of the Ocean". It has a thriving tourist industry and is being heavily promoted as "China's Hawaii".
The climate is subtropical to tropical. In January and February, it gets thick fog, especially in coastal areas and the northern part of the island.
While the Hainanese diaspora is not as large as that of Fujian and Guangdong, they nevertheless form a significant minority among the overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. Like the aforementioned two provinces, Hainan has benefitted substantially from overseas Chinese investment, and is one of China's wealthier provinces.
The island has been popular with Russian tourists for decades and now gets many tourists from the other cold parts of Europe as well. Hainan is undergoing heavy tourist-oriented development with various international hotel chains establishing resorts, especially in the Sanya area. These days, many wealthy Chinese from the northern provinces own second homes in Hainan, where they move to in the winter to escape the bitter cold that characterises much of northern China.
As anywhere in China, Mandarin is the lingua franca; nearly everyone can speak it with the exception of some of the elderly. Due to the proximity with Guangdong, some locals understand Cantonese as well.
Hainan also has significant numbers of speakers both of other Chinese dialects — the Danzhou region has its own local dialect and there are Hakka speakers on the island — and of unrelated languages. The Li people, who are the largest non-Han minority on the island, speak a language that is distantly related to Thai and Lao. There is also a Miao community on Hainan, who speak a language distantly related to Vietnamese and Khmer. Nevertheless, most younger people from these groups speak Mandarin as well.
As elsewhere in China, English is not widespread but some people speak it quite well. Staff at the main hotels and beach resorts will usually have a functional command of English. Hainan is a traditional destination for Russians escaping their winters, so many shop keepers and restaurant staff know some Russian, and much signage is in (bad!) Russian. However, trying to engage anyone in a conversation more often than not will prove fruitless.
- The hilly center of the island is home to various ethnic minorities, with many involved in the tourist industry.
- Much of the coast has beaches.
- (海口) – in the north; the capital and largest city
- (保亭) – toward the south, in the hills
- (博鳌) – on the east coast
- (陵水) – on the east coast, location of the Hainan incident (an American spy plane forced down)
- (三亚) – in the south, main tourist destination
- (文昌) – on the north-east coast, the cradle of Hainanese culture
- (五指山) – in the central highlands
- (儋州) – in the northwest
- (琼海) – on the east coast, known for Jiaji duck, and the all-female company of the Chinese Red Army who fought to defeat the Nationalists during the Chinese Civil War
- - resort area near Sanya
- Xiangshui or Perfume Bay - new resort area near Lingshui
- - located in Ledong County, said to contain the largest tropical rainforest in China
- - located in Changjiang County, the last refuge of the Hainan black-crested gibbon
Hainan's main airport is located at Haikou (HAK), which serves domestic flights to many major Chinese cities, as well as some international flights to other Asian cities. The airport at Sanya (SYX) also serves domestic several international flights to other Asian cities, as well as intercontinental flights to Russia. There is a third, smaller airport at Qionghai (BAR), though it only serves a small number of domestic flights and no international ones.
Trains run daily from Guangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai. The trains are loaded onto ferries to cross the sea with passengers remaining in the train cars. The trains stop at both Haikou and Sanya, as well as Dongfang, a smaller station between Haikou and Sanya.
There are no roads connecting Hainan and the mainland, though there are vehicular ferries doing so. If you catch a bus to Hainan, your bus will be loaded onto one of the ferries.
Three railways connect Haikou and Sanya. One is the old western ring railway, and the other two are the new high-speed western and eastern ring railways. High-speed trains run between Haikou and Sanya at up to 250 km/h, takes one hour and a half between the two cities.
As the smallest province in China with relatively flat landscape, Hainan is an ideal destination for long journey cycling trip. On the East Coast it has a 300km long national road (G223) connecting Haikou, Wenchang, Qionghai, Lingshui and Sanya. The route, which is
packed with most famous beach resorts and tourist attractions, is the easiest ride and most popular among amateur cyclists. The Middle route crossing Wushishan (Five-Finger Hill) takes some more toil to go. While it is possible to ride along the West coast, this area is the least developed and more preparation may be needed.
Sea Turtles 911The only non-profit organization promoting sea turtle conservation in China, Sea Turtles 911's primary facility is a floating sea turtle hospital in Lingshui near Nanwan Monkey Island, as well as programs in Sanya and Haikou. While on Hainan Island visitors are welcome to volunteer with the sea turtles and the organization's educational programs.
Bin Lang Guaddress: 224 National Rd, Baoting Lizumiaozuzizhixian, Hainan, ChinaA cultural village for the Li people (黎族), the largest non-Han ethnic minority of Hainan, and the original inhabitants of the island before large-scale Han settlement during the Song Dynasty.
- Sanya Beach - one of China's best-known beach areas
- South Mountain, or Nanshan Tourism Area 南山 - a large Shaolin Buddhist temple complex along the southernmost point of the island. Many backpackers consider this as a tourist trap: The temple was recently built and entrance fees are high.
- Gusong Village in Wenchang - an ancient, unique, beautiful, non-commercial traditional Hainanese village
South Bay Monkey Island (also known as Nanwan Monkey Islet)address: Lingshui South BayLingshui South Bay Monkey Island (also known as Nanwan Monkey Islet) Be wary of the monkeys that steal bags.
Crocodile Farms in SanyaUnder construction - will be available to tourists in the future
Volcano Park and lava rock villagesaddress: about 15km south of Haikou city, next to Shishan TownThe Volcano Park has an entrance fee of about ¥60. Lava rock villages are generally free, but if visiting Rongtang Protected Village pay the local elders ¥5.
The main visitor activities involve beaches and bars. The Sanya area is particularly well-provided with both, but there are some everywhere.
- Wenchang chicken - although many people have heard of "Hainanese chicken rice", only the method of preparing the chicken originates from Hainan, from a dish known as Wenchang chicken, which is also considered to be the signature dish of Hainan throughout China. The method of cooking the rice was actually developed by overseas Hainanese after they migrated to Southeast Asia.
- Seafood - very good, very fresh and at reasonable prices
- Try betel nuts, which can make you high, though they're bad for your health.
- Coconut Rice Cakes (薏粑) are a speciality snack of Hainan.
The Singapore-based firm Asia Pacific Breweries have a brewery on Hainan and their brands of beer, Tiger and Anchor, are common all over the island. As in anywhere else in China, a range of both Chinese and imported beers are widely available as well. Hainan also has a number of locally-brewed pineapple-based beers, odd but worth a try.
See the drink section of the China article for information on other booze; Hainan is much like any other province for this.
The island is covered with coconut trees. So drinking fresh coconut milk is a must!