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Derivative work by john2690. Other authors listed on source image page.
Sogdia was a historical region in Central Asia, the northernmost province of the Persian Empire and of the kingdom Alexander the Great established in the region after conquering the Persians.
The area is a fertile plain while much of the nearby land is mountains and deserts. Borders have changed over the centuries and the area has not always been united. Today most of it is in Uzbekistan, but parts of the historical region extend into what are now Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan.