BursaTurkish city, is in the northwestern part of the country, just south of the Sea of Marmara.
The first impression of the city might be that of a large, concrete-ridden modern metropolis that is betraying its largely recognized Turkish epithet of Yeşil Bursa ("Green Bursa"), and its historical prominency as being the cradle of the Ottoman state; however, upon a closer look you will see it really lives up to its name, by proudly displaying its Ottoman heritage in the shape of many mosques, tombs, and lovely quarters of old houses, as well as by harbouring many pleasant parks, which fill the city with fresh air, and provide the weary traveller some shade to rest in—and even if you haven't found the parks sufficient enough to have this city earned the honorific of "green", then the lush woodlands of Mt. Uludağ is just above that steep hill.
In 2014, Bursa and a nearby village of Cumalıkızık were added to the UNESCO world heritage list. The remains at several sites illustrate the creation of an urban and rural system establishing the Ottoman Empire in the early 14th century.
Bursa lies 20 km inland from the coast of the Sea of Marmara, with which it is connected by the River Nilüfer, which meanders its way through the northwestern suburbs of the city. With its 2½ million residents, it closely follows the "big three" of Turkey—Istanbul, Ankara, and İzmir—in population. Much of the population are immigrants, or their descendants, who have been in the city for a couple generations or more, either from Balkan countries fled from their homeland mostly during the years of often oppressive communist regime (mainly ethnic Turks from Bulgaria, North Macedonia, and Kosovo, as well as some Albanian Muslims), or from the far northeast of the country, including Muslim Georgians, who settled in the city in numbers for economical reasons. The city is also receiving immigration from elsewhere in the country, due to the recent growth of industry.
As one of the western terminuses of Silk Road, Bursa was, and still is, the main centre of Turkish silk industry. Other local products include fruits—especially peaches—grown abundantly in the fertile plain below the city, and chestnuts harvested from semi-wild stands on the hillsides. Relatively recent newcomers include automative industry, and a more diverse array of textiles, which have surpassed the traditional trades lately.
Bursa also strives to be "green" in the other sense: it is the first and so far the only Turkish city to have been measuring the electromagnetic pollution, and has some of the highest recycling rates in the country raked up by its metropolitan municipalities within the last two decades (the program is geared more towards the residential districts, though, so you won't see many separated bins in the centre to put your empty water bottle in). The environmental auspices reach beyond the city limits as well; Bursa has pioneered in signing the power lines in the surrounding countryside with big coloured spheres so as to minimize the danger they pose upon migratory birds (a project now implemented nationwide), and hosts the sanctuary of the bears that were rescued from the cruel tradition of "dancing bears" now outlawed (in which bear cubs were taken away from wilderness and forced to "dance" upon the percussion of their masters, of course, unbeknownst by the spectators, with the threat of physical harm—this was a common theme of the tourist photo shots taken in Istanbul up to the early 1990s) in the forests near Karacabey, 70 km west of the city. The sanctuary is still in operation, now serving as a temporary rehabilitation centre for all kinds of wildlife that were illegally taken into captivity.
HistoryAs with many cities of the classical era, ancient Prusa, a corrupted form of which is now the modern name of the city, was named after its founder, Prusias, the king of Bithynia, who set the first stone of the city in 202 BC. About a century and quarter later, Bursa, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Bithynia, was annexed into the Roman Empire. It was the Romans who developed the baths, making use of the thermal waters of Çekirge first, and they have been in continual operation ever since (But the Byzantines were the ones who were really enthusiastic about the baths. The first steps of tourism in Bursa date back to that era, when people from far and wide were arriving in numbers to visit the baths for their therapeutic properties).
In 1326, after trying for 8 to 10 years (historians haven't come to an agreement on the exact duration), then-Byzantine Bursa became the first major city that the Ottomans, who started as a small emirate in the countryside just east of the city, had taken control of. As such, it was here that the Ottoman principality rose from being an insignificant, remote, semi-nomad society to full statehood. Even after the seat was moved to Edirne in European mainland in 1365, as the sultans turned their attention to the continent across the Sea of Marmara, Bursa kept its special place in the Ottoman psyche, and all sultans up to Mehmet the Conqueror, who put an end to the Byzantine Empire by taking its last stronghold, Constantinople, in 1453, were buried here, even those reigning from Edirne. Many dynasty members, even after the throne was moved to Constantinople, followed the suite as well.
The earthquake of 1855 shook the city hard, claiming many landmarks together with it. With this information in mind, you'll have little reason to wonder why what seemingly should be an ancient Ottoman edifice was built in then-contemporary styles of Ottomanized Baroque and Rococo.
OrientationThe steep foothills of Uludağ forced the city to grow in a linear, elongated form in an east-west direction, rather than spread out. Most of the sights and useful locations are on or near the main street, which finds its way through the entire length of the city centre (roughly 6–7 km), called under various names in different parts of the city.
The central square of the city is Heykel ("statue"), named so because of an imposing equestrian statue of Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic, standing in front of the building of the Province Governorship (the official name of this square is Cumhuriyet Alanı, "Republic Square", but no one uses it).
West of Heykel, the name of the main drag is Atatürk Caddesi. Past Ulucami and the bazaars area (or the "Khans and Bazaars District", as those in the tourism industry in Bursa love to name it), the street becomes Cemal Nadir Caddesi, skirting around the hill of Tophane, the oldest core of the city surrounded by ancient walls. Useful landmarks on this part of the city include the Ottoman clocktower rising on Tophane, and just below it on the street level, the much modern blue glass pyramid standing on the square in front of the Zafer Plaza shopping mall. Heading further west, passing under the overpass at the intersection with another main street (Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Caddesi), the main street is named Altıparmak Caddesi, one of the main shopping streets of the city, sharing the same name with the district it traverses. The western end of Altıparmak Cd, and the hill on which the Ottoman quarter of Muradiye resides south of/above it, mark the limit of the traditional centre of the city; further west from here lies Çekirge Caddesi, leading to the one-time suburb of Çekirge, through the affluent and leafy neighbourhood of Kükürtlü. Between Altıparmak and Kükürtlü, due north of Muradiye, Stadyum Caddesi lying on the edge of the football stadium and Kültürpark connects the city centre with D200, the main intercity highway skirting the city centre to north.
East of Heykel, just past the Setbaşı Bridge, spanning the fairly deep gorge of Gökdere Stream (the bridge, due to the unexpectedly long drop below it, is infamous as the favourite suicide spot of Bursa), the main street forks into two in a Y-junction, marked by an old plane tree right in the middle: Take left, Yeşil Caddesi, for Yeşil, and Emirsultan further east, or right, Namazgah Caddesi, for the station of cable-cars to Uludağ.
ClimateA great time to visit the city is the late winter/early spring, which is characterized by refreshing rains early in the morning, followed by sunny and comfortably warm noons—a welcome and easily perceived change from cooler Istanbul (located further north) or Eskişehir (located higher, and further away from the sea).
Yenişehir AirportAnadolu Jet fly to Bursa from Ankara, Trabzon, Diyarbakır, Erzurum and Muş. But given the distance of the airport, and its poor connections with the city, it's easier to fly to either of Istanbul's two airports then take the ferry to Bursa.
From the airport take local bus number 80 to the city center (6 TL, red ticket "Long Lines"). You pay directly with the driver when boarding the bus through the front door. Cash is accepted or use your Bursakart, if you have. Terminus of the bus line is Kent Meydanı. From there you can connect onward using the metro.
By trainSince the decommissioning of Bursa–Mudanya railway in the 1950s, there has been no railway connecting with Bursa.
However, when coming from Ankara, you can take the high-speed train (YHT) to Eskişehir, which is located about the mid-way, and then transfer to the bus heading for Bursa there, which is provided by Turkish State Railways and departs right in front of the station. This combined trip takes around 4 hours (as opposed to 5½ hours by bus only), and there are seven fast train departures daily from Ankara.
By carHighways that are fairly wide and in good condition connect the city to north (D575/E881, from İzmit, Yalova, and Istanbul, the shortest route from last of which involves taking a ferry to Yalova), west (D200/E90 from Balıkesir with a connection to D565 from İzmir in the southwest), and east (D200/E90 from Eskişehir and Ankara, with a connection to D650 from Antalya in the south).
By busBuses connect with most significant cities in the country, including Ankara, İzmir, and Antalya. Prices vary from €10-50, depending on the distance. Most of the bus firms are listed in tikobilet-Bursa so you can get your tickets online.
From IstanbulTakes less than 3 hours (from the Asian side) since the inauguration of the Osman Gazi Bridge. Pamukkale offers nonstop trips from Istanbul - Harem or Kurtköy (near the Sabiha Gökcen Airport).
From BergamaPamukkale provides a direct bus leaving at 10:00 from Bergama's new otogar. 6½ hours.
All intercity buses arrive at the modern bus station (locally called Terminal), about 10 km north of the city, off the highway to Istanbul, and just inside the beltway (which the buses heading for east, west, and south take). All buses offload at one side, the ticket kiosks all located inside, and at the other side are the yellow city buses leaving for the downtown and various districts of the city centre. The row of bus stops are equipped with illuminated signs telling the route number and the main stops the bus in the stop in question will go through—#38 goes in a loop between the downtown and the station, while #96 connects with Çekirge, also going through parts of the downtown first, and closing its loop through Kükürtlü and Çekirge before returning to the station. (Upon returning to the station while leaving the city, you should also take your bus in the stops on the same side of the street that you got off, because of the circular fashion of the routes of these buses.) It takes these buses around 45 minutes to complete their route, first along the highway in the edge of the city, then into the narrow alleys of the slum-like district of Çirişhane, and finally into the city centre through Stadyum Caddesi (see the "Orientation" section above). While in the station, buy your ticket (2.50 TL) from the small building next to the bus stops.
There are also very frequent turquoise- coloured buses marked HEYKEL which will let you off right in the centre of Bursa opposite Ulucamii.
Taxito the city centre from Terminal costs about 35 TL.
By boatThe following journey is the fastest option from Istanbul. 2 companies offer fast ferries from Istanbul to Bursa ( Tickets can be booked online.):
- İDO: Take one of İDO's Istanbul-Bursa ferries from Istanbul Yenikapı terminal (in the European part of Istanbul near Sultanahmet), Besiktas or Kadıköy to Güzelyalı (80 minutes, 20 - 40 TL). Güzelyalı is about 20 km from Bursa, and minibuses meet the ferry to take passengers to Organize Sanayi metro station (30 min, 3 TL) in the outer suburbs of the city. Alternatively, you can take the municipal bus 1/GY from Güzelyalı IDO Pier to Emek metro station.
- BUDO: BUDO ferries depart from Istanbul Old Town (Eminönü/Sirkeci) to Mudanya (27 TL). Mudanya is also 20 km away from Bursa. You can either take a minibus to Organize Sanayi Metro Station or the municipal bus 1/M-BUDO to Emek metro station .
- Take the metro from Organize Sanayi or Emek metro station to downtown Bursa — get off at Şehreküstü station for the old section of the city close to the market area (30 min, 2 TL). The whole journey from Istanbul to the centre of Bursa will take 2½-3 hours.
The Bursa Metro is called Bursaray - for information in Turkish: Bursaray and a map
The fare for inner-city rides is 5 TL (Sept 2019), which you must pay using a Bursakart or single-use ticket (blue card, "Short Lines"), available from ticket machines in the stations. The machines provide instructions in English, but accept only 5 TL and 10 TL notes, so come prepared.
To get to the IDO ferry terminal for boats to Istanbul, take the Bursaray to Emek (~45 min from the city center), then bus 1-M will take you right into the terminal (~25 min). The bus runs 4-5 times per hour, and costs ~3 TL (Nov 2017). You must pay for the bus with credit on your Bursakart - cash is not accepted.
UlucamiThe "great mosque" of Bursa. Built in early Ottoman period, in 1399, it resembles more of earlier Seljuq buildings of inland Anatolia than the typical Ottoman mosques such as Blue Mosque of Istanbul built later. Ulucamii is perhaps most renown for the striking calligraphic panels that adorn its walls, columns and the fountain within the mosque whose trickling sounds contribute to its serene atmosphere.
Yeşil CamiiThis mosque is in the Yeşil or 'green' district of Bursa just left over the bridge. It contains a wonderful turbe or tomb completely covered by tiles inside and out. The mosque opposite is very unusual in that it has a fountain inside the prayer area - with lots of legends attached to it. It is also built in a cruciform shape. No one knows why. Beside it are tea gardens with spectacular views over the Bursa valley and Uludag mountain.
Emir Sultan Camii
Muradiye KülliyesiWhile the mosque is fairly plain compared to others, the complex has eight mausoleums that range in decoration from simple to extravagant.
- Orhan Camii ve Külliyesi (Orhan Mosque)
- Koca Sinan Paşa
- İshak Paşa Külliyeleri
Yeşil TürbeThe tomb of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I (1412-1420), it is the iconic monument of the city.
- Emir Sultan Türbesi
- Gazi Timurtaş Paşa Türbesi
- Gazi Osman Türbesi, the tomb of the first Ottoman sultan, and Orhan Gazi Türbesi, the tomb of the second Ottoman sultan, the son of Osman. These tombs sit beside each other in the Tophane district. They are of interest more for their history than their design, but they sit on a terrace that provides s nice view over the city.
- The Muradiye Complex surrounding the Muradiye Mosque is a small necropolis filled with tombs of illustrious Ottoman figures such as Murat II; Prince Mustafa, son of Suleiman the Great; Gülbahar Hanım, midwife of Mehmet the Conqueror and various wives of sultans.
Museum of the 17th Century Ottoman Housephone: +90 225 223 08 68address: Muradiye Mah. 7. Aralık So.A house partially restored as it would have appeared in the 17th century. It has sparse furnishings and a couple of dioramas. Ask for the English-language brochure.
İnkaya Tarihi ÇınarıA huge, approximately 600-year-old plane (Platanus orientalis) tree with an open-air café sheltered by its deep shadow, on the foothills of (and just off the road to) Uludağ
DarüzziyafeA poorhouse during the Ottoman period, this building now serves as a family restaurant (with no alcohol service). It is a stunningly restored building in the Muradiye district of Bursa. The garden has wonderful views of Bursa. The cuisine is pure Ottoman and difficult to find in a modern Turkish city.
- Sarı Konak In Tophane.
- Balıbey Han
- Koza Han
- Irgandı Köprüsü (Bridge) in Setbasi. It's an old version of shopping malls. There are small shops on bridge.
CumalıkızıkA village founded more than 700 years ago. There are 265 centuries-old half-timbered houses in the village and approximately 190 of them are still occupied.
phone: +90 224 2366968address: Kukurtlu Mh. Cekirge CaddAn experience not to be missed while visiting Bursa for anyone interested in a relaxing thermal bath. The mineral water boils up from below the extensive baths built in 1555 and flows into a large central pool from a lion's head fixed into the wall. The baths are anything but touristy but the staff are used to tourists. Not a word of Turkish is necessary! The building remains unchanged since it was built by the Vizer 'Kara Mustafa' or 'Black Mustafa'. It is a large multi roomed building with a wonderful sense of space and proportion. It is modeled on the Roman Baths rather than a hammam as pools - or non-flowing water were never permitted under Islam. This is the exception. A good rubdown (kese) and a massage are essential. Afterwards just go for a nap in one of the beds provided wrapped in towels. Bliss. Most men wear bathing suits for convenience, but it is not required. You can buy them as shops outside or inside the hammam.
Turkish bathsSince Bursa lies on a geologically-active area, the place is rich in mineral waters and accordingly is famous for its traditional baths.
- Keçeli Hamamı. For women. More than 600 years old and renewed.
- Umurbey Hamamı
- Yeşil Hamamı
- Beyaz Saray Hamamı. For men. In Altıparmak.
- Kervan Saray Hamamı. For women and for men, in Cekirge district. The hamam has a nice pool. It is clean and hygienic.
- Silk - one of the major industries of Bursa in the past, this is still one of the major draws of Bursa.
Koza HanSilk bazaar dating back to 1491. Think of a very historical mall devoted only to silk.
address: Ünlü CaddeRestaurant is named after the dish since the owners are descendants of the person who "invented" the dish. Several locations.
Pidecioğluaddress: Bozkurt CaddesiAnother good İskender kebab restaurant.
Çiçek Izgaraaddress: Belediye Caddesi 15, HeykelA meatball restaurant referred to by many Turkish novelists.
- Hacı Dayı is a kebab restaurant in the Tophane district with tasty dishes and large portion sizes for a decent price. Look for it right behind the tombs of Osman and Orhan.
address: Atatürk Caddesi, Selcuk Hatun Mah. Unlu Cad No:7 Osmangazi BursaVery tasty Iskender kebab and grills for decent prices.
Açelya Hotelphone: +90 224 223-01-66address: İnönü Caddesi 73Clean and small hotel in the city center. Homely atmosphere. You can walk to the bazaar and historical places from the hotel easily.
Çeşmeli Hotelphone: +90 224 224 15 11 - 12address: Gümüşçeken Cad. 6In the heart of Bursa in Heykel this hotel is unusual in that it is owned by two sisters and all the employees are women. The hotel gets its name "with drinking fountain" from the fountain in the wall of the hotel - much appreciated by locals in the summer.
Safran Otelphone: +90 224 224-7216address: Ortapazar Cadessi, Arka Sok, 4Very nice small hotel in a renovated old house close to the centre of town. Staff are very friendly and helpful. Rooms on the ground floor tend to be a little noisy. Googlemaps has this hotel listed twice with one incorrect location. The correct location is just inside the city gate closest to the covered markets.
Hotel Gonluferah, around €70 per night, has rooms with great views of the city as the hotel is on the way to the Uludag mountain.
- Uludag National Park (Uludağ Milli Parkı) — just south of city, a wintersports resort and hiking destination
- Cumalıkızık — made into the UNESCO World Heritage List together with Bursa, this well-preserved and nice historic village east of the city that dates back to the early Ottoman settlement in the area (early 14th century) is an easy day-trip thanks to the frequent public transport links with the city centre
- Oylat (Turkish Baths)
- Gemlik Kaplıcaları(Turkish Baths)
- Kurşunlu Plajları(Beach)
- Prusa Kenti Surları(City Wall)
- Miletopolis (Karacabey)
- Mirlea (Mudanya)
- Kirmastı (Mustafa Kemal Paşa)
- Atranos (Orhaneli)
- Neopolis (Yenişehir) Koimesis, Hagios Kiliseleri (Churches)
- Nikaia Nekropolü,
- Yıldırım Bedesteni (Yildirim Bazaar)
- Armutlu — sea-side town with some hot springs to north
- Iznik (Nicaea/Nikaia) — historic town to east featuring old city walls, lakefront promenade, and the church in which first and seventh ecumenical councils of early Christianity were convened
- Bilecik and Söğüt — retrace the steps of the early Ottomans and find out more about their nomadic past in these nearby towns to the east