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Mamoon Mengal
The ancient settlement of Mohenjo-daro is situated in Larkana District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Listed as an archaeological site of immense historical significance on the UNESCO World Heritage List, the town was buried underneath thousands of years of dirt and soil until its discovery in early 1900s. It is one of the most important archaeological sites of South Asia, not to be missed if you are interested in archaeology or in the history of the Indian subcontinent.
Believed to have been built in about 2,600 BCE (some 5,000 years ago) and had a population of 35,000 to 50,000 at its peak; this historical might was one of the main centres of the Indus Valley Civilisation until 1,900 BCE, the first great civilisation of the Indian Subcontinent which flourished on both banks of the mighty River Indus from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea and spanned much of what today is Pakistan. A melting pot of traders, fishermen and farmers, Mohenjo-daro was one of the largest, most advanced and a fine thriving city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. Given its impressive ruins, one can only imagines how magnificent and intelligent the Mohenjo-daro and its ancient inhabitants would have been 5,000 years ago. Located west of the mighty Indus River, the reasons for this economic hub sudden abandonment around 1,900 BCE are uncertain; one theory is that it was due to the impact of climate change which caused change in course of Indus River.
The ruins were first discovered in 1911 and excavations started in 1922, while major excavations were carried out in the 1930s. After 1965, further excavations were banned due to fears of damage to the ruins; it is estimated that only one third of the site has been revealed thus far and some believe only 10 to 20 percent has been discovered. The site has recently threatened by erosion and, despite conservation efforts funded by both the Pakistani government and UNESCO, it is considered endangered. Some archaeologists say that it will be gone by 2030 unless there is a major new conservation initiative.


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