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(WT-en) Roffe
Neum is a resort town on the 9 km strip of Adriatic coast that belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina. In other contexts this country is often loosely referred to as "Bosnia", but Neum is specifically part of Herzegovina. That entity is undefined and contentious so on this page the country is abbreviated to BiH.
Please don't let Neum be the only place you visit in fascinating BiH, but for most tourists it will be. That's because its territory separates Dubrovnik from the rest of Croatia, so all those visitors have to briefly exit not only Croatia but the EU, then re-enter; then do the same when their excursion returns north. Traffic tail-backs are common, and there may be other complications, outlined below.
This situation arose from a 1699 peace treaty: Ottoman expansion was smashed forever at the Battle of Zenta, and new borders were drawn with Venice, the Holy Roman Empire, and the growing regional superpower of Austria-Hungary. The land border hardly mattered in the days when only goat-herd trails crossed the rugged mountains and most travellers reached Dubrovnik by sea, as you still can. In the 20th century highways were built but the future Croatia and BiH were part of Yugoslavia, and the border was just a county line. It mattered more once those countries became independent, and even more when Croatia joined the EU and committed to joining the Schengen free movement area: Neum means you can't even move freely between Dubrovnik city and the northern part of Dubrovnik region.
So for most people Neum is just a 20-minute transit, half of which will be spent queuing for the toilets behind two other coach parties. It also has low-duty tobacco, alcohol and fuel - you might save €10 by filling your tank here. But it's also a beach resort in its own right, cheaper than surrounding Croatia. A couple of km offshore is the Pelješac peninsula of Croatia, which stretches all the way from Dubrovnik, and there's long been talk of a bridge to bypass Neum. This is now under construction, optimistically scheduled to open in 2022; Neum will then cease to be a busy highway and will have a chance to re-launch itself as a resort. If in the meantime you don't want to cross Neum for any reason, the simplest workaround is to take the ferry between Ploče north of the strip to Trpanj on the peninsula, and other ferry and air routes to Dubrovnik are possible.

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