North AmericaSouth America. North America's highest point is Alaska's Denali, which rises to above sea level.
- Bermuda — overseas territory of the United Kingdom
- Saint-Pierre and Miquelon — overseas department of France
- Havana — the capital of Cuba is famous for its cigars, its strong Hispanic-Caribbean culture, and its legendary nightlife
- Kingston — the centre of Afro-Caribbean culture, it is cosmopolitan, diverse and the home of Reggae.
- Los Angeles — Hollywood and movie stars; mountains and beaches; and lots of traffic
- Mexico City — capital city of Mexico, the third-largest city in the world is chock-full of museums, centuries-old architecture, modern amenities... and people
- New York City — the Big Apple is the center of North American commerce and culture, immortalized in film and song alike
- Panama City — the capital of Panama, a friendly city sitting at the nexus between two continents
- Toronto — Canada's largest city, a cosmopolitan mosaic with ethnic enclaves and cultural attractions galore
- Vancouver — a city of steel and glass condominiums and outstanding natural beauty, where you can go skiing and sit on the beach all in the same day
- Washington, D.C. — the capital of the United States, with many cultural and historical attractions
- Banff National Park — Canada's first national park is also one of its largest
- Chichen Itza — the largest of the archaeological cities of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico
- Corcovado National Park — very biologically diverse national park in Costa Rica
- Grand Canyon — a massive canyon in Arizona, carved over several million years
- Niagara Falls — three grandiose waterfalls on the border between the United States and Canada
- Teotihuacan — the 'city of the gods', with some of the largest ancient pyramids in the world
- Tikal — an archaeological site in Guatemala, one of the largest and most important of the ancient Mayan cities
- Walt Disney World — the flagship of Disney's worldwide theme park network, near Orlando, Florida
- Yellowstone National Park — the world's first national park is also home to most of its geysers and an amazing concentration of animals
ClimateNorth America stretches across all climate zones. Much of Greenland, Alaska and northern Canada are in the Arctic, with cold or cool weather all year round, and few inhabitants. Most of Canada's land area is boreal, with short summers and long winter; most Canadians live in the temperate zone, which makes up southern Canada and most of the United States. Here you can find cosmopolitan and interesting world cities and relatively easily accessible national parks for friends of nature and wildlife.
The southern and southwestern United States, as well as northern Mexico, is in the sub-tropical zone. Southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean are tropical, with warm weather year round.
HistoryThe indigenous cultures of North America, also called Native Americans, Indians or First Nations arrived in Alaska before 10,000 BC, and have populated virtually all parts of North America. Except a short-lived Viking colony around AD 1000, the Americas were isolated from the rest of the world until the voyages of Columbus from 1492, and the subsequent wave of colonization, where first Spain, and later France, the British Empire and the Russian Empire seized parts of the continent. The Caribbean was divided between several European countries; in addition to the aforementioned, the Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark had island colonies. The United States became independent in 1776, was the first country outside the United Kingdom to industrialize (see American Industry Tour), expanded westwards during the 19th century to dominate the continent (see Old West), and has been rising as the world's dominant superpower in the 21st century. Haiti was the second country in the Americas to achieve its independence in part as a result of the most successful slave revolt in recorded history.
By planeYou can get into major cities in the USA and Canada by direct flights from all the other inhabited continents. Latin American carriers fly directly between Central and South America and from Europe you can fly directly to many of the Caribbean islands. The cheapest flights and most destinations will be to the United States. Of the 15 biggest airports in North America, only one is not in the United States, Toronto-Pearson. If you do not wish to travel through the US to get to your destination, there is service offered to major airports such as Mexico City, Panama City and Punta Cana from major European and South American hubs. Flying is the fastest and cheapest way to get to North America.
By boatIt is possible to travel across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by freight or cruise ship, but these cruises tend to be quite expensive compared to flying (and infrequent). There are ferries from the northern rim of South America to Central America and to the Caribbean. There is still one old style ocean liner connecting New York City to Southampton, UK, though. So if you have both time and money and want to arrive in style as in the old days, it can certainly be done.
OverlandEven if the Americas are physically connected, there are no roads or railroads between Panama and Colombia. It is possible (but hopelessly dangerous) to hike through the 100 km of jungle; if you want to take your vehicle with you, you need to take the ferry.
By planeBecause population centers are often widely spaced, most long-range travel is by air, with an extensive network of major hubs and smaller regional airports, usually supplemented with car rental services to cover local travel when you arrive at your destination (see "By car"). The cheapest fares are between major cities, so you may have to drive a few hours on each end of the trip to get to and from the airports.
By busThere is prolific long-range bus service across most of the U.S. and Canada, but travel times are excessively long (often substantially longer than a direct trip in a personal vehicle) and stations tend to be poorly maintained and even more poorly secured. Intercity buses generally travel only among significant cities, never to remote locations, and are limited or unavailable outside of business hours.
In Mexico, by contrast, bus service is extensive and a common way to get around. In Central America, buses are the backbone of local transportation, as car ownership remains low and both domestic flights and railways have only a niche role, if any. If you want to meet the locals, hop on a chicken bus and enjoy the bumpy ride.
The following companies operate buses extensively in North America:
Greyhound CanadaGreyhound Canada connects Montreal, Ottawa, and Toronto, with international connections via Buffalo and New York City. International service connecting to Greyhound USA is also available in Vancouver. It is a subsidiary brand of First Group Plc in the UK and partnered with Greyhound Lines in the U.S.
phone: +1 214 849-8966Greyhound serves over 3,800 locations throughout the U.S. and cross-border services from the U.S. into Canada and Mexico. It also operates the Bolt Bus (Pacific NW, California and the Northeastern part of the U.S.); Valley Transit Co (Southeastern Texas) and Cruceros USA (California & Arizona in the U.S. and Baja California Norte & Sonora in Mexico) brands in different parts of the U.S. Most towns have Greyhound service to them, but only 1 or 2 trips a day.
MegabusBesides having its own distinctive buses, Megabus is absorbing the buses of Coach USA and Coach Canada and rebranding them as "Megabus". Megabus operates in Canada, mainly in southern Ontario. Megabus is a popular brand in Great Britain and North America. It operates under different brands for intercity, commuter, airport shuttles, university shuttle and charter services in different localities in the USA.
phone: +52 55 5729-0807It also operates the Elite, TNS (Transportes Norte de Sonora), Chihuahuanese, Pacifico, Oriente, TF (Tranporte Frontera), Estrella Blanca, Conexion, Rapidos de Cuauhtemoc and Valle de Guadiana within Mexico and Autobus Americanos as a joint venture with Greyhound Lines for cross border travel between the U.S. and Mexico. As the largest bus company they serve much of the northern & northwestern states of Aguascaliente, Baja California Norte, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Districto Federal (DF), Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayrit, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora and Zacatecas states, up to the US border. It sells tickets for onward travel to the United States from the border on Greyhound (and vice versa).
Grupo SendaRivals the above serving Aguascaliente, Colima, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco,Michocoan, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas and Zacatecas states in Mexico and into the US. From the border it offers services to the southeastern and central U.S. states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. It also operates the Turimex (in the U.S.) and Del Norte bus lines
phone: +52 55 5133-5133It operates the ADO, ADO GL, AU (Autobus Unidos), OCC (Omnibus Cristobal Colon), and Platino bus lines, and the Boletotal/Ticketbus.com booking site in Mexico. It is a major bus company serving the eastern and southeastern part of the country towards the Guatemalan border in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz, Chiapas, Tamaulipas, Tabasco, and the Yucatan Peninsula (Yucatan, Quintana Roo and Campeche). It offers a once-daily trip to/from Belize City via Chetumal from Cancun and Merida and connecting service with Tica Bus, Trans Galgos and King Quality in Tapachula for onward travel to/from Central America.
Tica BusTica Bus is the major bus line serving all the major cities in all of Central America except Belize from Tapachula down to Panama City, Panama.
Between these major bus lines it is possible to travel by bus across and between the three biggest countries in North America and seven smaller ones in Central America. In addition to the above, there are numerous other companies and local drivers' unions (more in Mexico & Central America) operating buses locally, regionally or even across longer distances as well. See "By bus" in the article for a particular country, state/province, region and/or locality for more. Most locations from small towns up to large cities have bus service within a town or to neighboring towns. The quality of service varies, but how late and often it runs roughly corresponds with city size.
By carMost travel in Canada, the United States, and Mexico is by personal vehicle. Almost all highways in Canada and the United States are well maintained, with amenities such as gas, food, and lodging ranging from adequate to very convenient. If you experience an emergency that endangers your life, safety, or property, you will be able to dial 911 from a compatible cell phone on almost any major highway and reach an operator at any time. Vehicle and medical insurance issued in either Canada or the U.S. is usually valid in the other, though the wise traveller will confirm with their insurer. Canada and U.S. insurance coverage in Mexico is sometimes limited or not honored. Again, the wise traveler will confirm with their insurer.
Car rental agencies are available at almost every airport. Normally, a valid driver's license and a major credit card or cash deposit are required. Rentals are sometimes restricted for drivers under age 25. Many agencies offer short term insurance and additional coverage.
In much of western Alaska and almost all of Greenland, no major highways connect towns and cities. If roads do exist, they do not usually have the same standards as roads in the rest of North America.
Among the areas with most frequent service is the US Northeast Corridor which links Washington, D.C. to Boston with frequent stops in intermediate cities such as Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, New Haven, and Providence. There is at least hourly service in this corridor from 4AM to 1AM. In Canada, the heavily-populated Windsor-Quebec corridor has several trains daily which compare favorably in speed to freeway travel, although the cost to put one passenger on the train often exceeds that of intercity bus or of the fuel to travel by car.
In communities off the beaten track, often the rails have simply been removed and the former rights-of-way used as bicycle, snowmobile or nature trails. There are no railways remaining on Prince Edward Island or the island of Newfoundland.
Most private intercity rail carriers have abandoned passenger service as unprofitable, leaving de facto federally-owned entities such as Amtrak (in the US) and VIA Rail (in Canada) to operate the services that remain. Short commuter train runs are often regionally or municipally operated in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. See Rail travel in Canada and Rail travel in the United States. Compared to Europe and East Asia, speed is low and frequencies are sparse, but the views and the comfort may make up for it. Indeed on the spectacular routes some trains traverse in North America, the journey does indeed become the destination. High speed rail is if anything in its infancy, with only the Boston to Washington, DC Northeast corridor qualifying for even a generous definition, but several projects are either planned or under construction throughout the U.S.
In Mexico and Central America passenger trains are nominal at best (Like the Chihuahua al Pacifico Line through the Copper Canyon) and non-existent at worst (in most places). There are however some tourist trains, and various Central American countries as well as Mexico have actively considered whether to build a new freight or passenger rail line. Economic developments and - in the case of Mexico - a sharp drop in oil prices have at the very least postponed these plans for now, so don't hold your breath.
On the sea
The cruise industry is a large industry in some parts of North America, and cruises to places such as Bermuda and the West Indies are readily available, as they are to parts of Mexico. Cruises are offered as tours, and, if your travel begins or ends at a port in the United States, you generally must embark or disembark either at the same port or in a different country at the other end of the cruise. (This is due to cabotage laws.) The exception is if the line is owned and staffed by Americans, using American-built ships. (Most cruise lines are multinational operations.) Generally, cruises stop at a given port for only a few hours, so this method of travel may be inconvenient for people who want to stay longer at a port. Some locations, such as Washington, Alaska, San Francisco, New York City and Boston, have ferry service, allowing trips to various locations in or near them.
On lakes and riversNorth America contains a number of large bodies of fresh water, be it the Great Lakes between Canada and the USA or the various rivers traversing the continent and most of them are used extensively to ferry goods and people. Cruising on small craft certainly is an option in the US, as it is the country with the longest inland waterways in the world. Canada similarly offers a huge number of options for owners or renters of small craft. In the less developed corners of Central America, some places are or were reachable by boat only or the waterway remains one of the more comfortable and faster ways to get there. Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua for instance only got an airport in 2014, but given flight schedules and the view from the boat, most will still want to arrive on the water. Places that are deeper in the jungle or otherwise off the beaten path may be best accessed by boat and some ferries (e.g. between El Salvador and Nicaragua or between Honduras and Belize) will spare you a roundabout route overland.
By footIf you find yourself in a large city, like New York, walking might be the best way to get around because of the large amount of traffic that many large cities have. There are many sidewalks and footpaths to take in less populated areas. For the dedicated long-distance hikers the Continental Divide Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail are United States National Scenic Trails running thousands of miles between Mexico and Canada through some of the most mountainous and rugged areas of North America.
By public transportWhile cities such as Managua are a traffic nightmare and the buses are neither all that fast nor all that comfortable (they're cheap, though), others such as Panama City have built modern metros in the 21st century that are very popular with tourists and locals. Almost all self-respecting cities of a certain size in Canada and the USA have some form of metro or light rail to get you around at least downtown. Mexico City has the second biggest metro by ridership in the Americas (after New York City). Many cities were built with automobiles in mind and outside of the downtown core you may be lucky if a bus even comes your way once an hour on weekdays, even in places as big as Dallas. Touring the United States without a car is a particular challenge though doable with advance planning and careful choice of destinations.
By bikeWhile there is hardly any traditional "bicycle culture" in most places (outside of recreational cycling, that is), there are new "bike-share" programs in many cities in the USA as well as Mexico City and Canada. While primarily aimed at locals, travelers can usually sign up as well (provided they have a credit card and/or passport). In more rural regions with a tradition of recreational cycling, you may very well get traditional bike rental by the day or week. Some cities have an emerging cyclist culture and joining up in a "critical mass" ride is a good way to meet the locals and get into contact with the local cycling scene. Cycling is certainly on the rise in many cities of the continent, but even the most bike friendly places like Portland, Oregon, are a far cry from the like of Copenhagen or Amsterdam in terms of bike culture.
The range of things to see in North America is enormous. There is spectacular natural scenery ranging from mountains and tundra to deserts and tropical rain forests. The Rocky Mountains (Rockies) are the continent's largest mountain range, running from northern Canada to the southwestern United States. The Rockies contain some of the world's most visited national parks including the famous Yellowstone . North American cities like New York City, Chicago, and Washington, DC are home to some of the world's finest museums. Stunning architecture can be found from Panama City to Montreal.
North American wildlife, with iconic species such as the grizzly, the bison, the mustang and the bald eagle, is an attraction in itself. The tropics belong to another biogeographic region; see Central and South American wildlife.
Some of the best scenic areas include
- the Appalachian Mountains, stretching from Quebec to the Appalachia region of the Southern United States
- the Pacific Coast Highway along the cost of California
- the Rocky Mountains (including Yellowstone and Banff national parks, among others)
- the Everglades, a massive wetland in Florida
- Niagara Falls on the Canada-USA frontier between Lakes Erie and Ontario
- the Grand Canyon of Colorado River in Arizona
- the beaches and fishing villages of the East Coast, from Newfoundland and Labrador to the Carolina s
- the "Inside Passage" between Vancouver Island and the coast of mainland British Columbia
Cultural and historical themes
- the Alaska Highway (and the and various routes that lead to it)
- Dalton Highway
- El Camino Real
- Route 66
- Underground Railroad
- Trans-Canada Highway
- Panama Canal
- Ruta del transito - The old interoceanic route through Nicaragua that was a main travel thoroughfare prior to the transcontinental railroad
Usually, you can buy large ranges of clothing and lots of electronics. North America is known for manufacturing lots of electronics, such as Apple, Hewlett Packard (HP) and Dell, which are all major electronics manufacturers from North America.
Many North American cities have famous shopping districts such as 5th Avenue in New York City, Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, and the Magnificent Mile in Chicago. Downtown shopping districts have spawned some of the world's most famous retailers including Macy's, Bloomingdale's, and Neiman Marcus.
Many tourists enjoy shopping at the biggest shopping mall in the United States, the Mall of America. It's located in Bloomington, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. As well as having an amazing number of stores, you'll also find a multi-screen movie theater, an amusement park, and many restaurantsincluding both sit-down and fast-food. Also, the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta is a popular destination having once been the world's largest mall.
You will want to experience the foods of the region you are visiting: seafood in San Francisco, lobster in Maine and Boston, steak in Texas, Creole in New Orleans, barbecue (BBQ) throughout the South and Texas with each region having its unique sauces and preparations.
Fresh food availability is particularly obvious in California, which is also enjoying a prominence of organic food and "slow food" movements. In Florida, you will want to tour the orange groves for that freshly squeezed taste. Georgia is renowned for fresh peaches. States on the southern borders, such as New Mexico, serve lots of Mexican foods, and the spiciness and flavors will vary based upon the Mexican state they border.
Potluck suppers are held throughout the Midwest and South (you may find a few on the coasts if you are lucky). If you can get invited to one of those...be sure to go! You'll enjoy everything from jello salad to venison (deer) and elk, to southern fried chicken. It's soul food of the best kind.
Canadian food, like that of the U.S., varies from region to region and is heavily influenced by its immigrant culture. Broadly speaking, you should think seafood on the coasts, meat and potatoes in the center of the country, and pretty much anything you can think of in the cosmopolitan major cities. Poutine, french fries covered in cheese curd and gravy, may be the nation's favorite fast food snack.
The Caribbean is known for its seafood and specialties like Jerk chicken.
While Mexican influence extends into the cuisine of Northern Central America, countries like Nicaragua or Costa Rica have their own distinct flavor, based mostly upon rice and beans that together make up gallo pinto (also known as casamiento in other parts of Central America), a staple food that you will eat at least once during any visit, no matter how short.
Europeans used to mock American beers for their lack of diversity and flavor. No longer. While a light beer can still be enjoyed in hot regions on sandy beaches, the U.S. has microbreweries dotting the country. Major concentrations of microbreweries can be found in New England, the Pacific Northwest, Colorado, and Northern California. The diversity of beers is now enormous and most beer-lovers will find at least one or two to their liking. Mexico is known for the lighter beers (Corona, Dos Equis, Pacifico) that go well with their cuisine and warm climate, although darker options are also available. The lighter beers are also more common in southern areas and the Caribbean, though many of these areas also have special non-beer options (regional types of rum are quite diverse, for example).
Canada and the U.S. have various wine regions and variants which have become internationally recognized and respected. Try the ice wine from Ontario and you will never forget the clean, clear beauty that is extracted from the frozen grape. The US has become the fourth largest wine making region in the world, with California producing roughly 90% of that volume. A trip to San Francisco should be accompanied by a drive through the famous Napa Valley, although if the crowds deter you, you can easily enjoy lovely wineries a few hours south along the Central Coast of California (add a stop at Hearst Castle) or beautiful Pinot Noirs in Oregon. Upstate New York (Finger Lakes region) is another major wine producing region.
Again, the immigrant influx to North America brought with it culturally diverse methods of alcohol production. Regional drinks and types of liquors abound. Beverages in the southern regions will often be mixed with tropical fruits; and of course, Mexico is famous for fermentation techniques with the agave plant (Tequila, anyone?). Rums abound in Southern areas of Mexico as well as Central America and the Caribbean, and have much diversity in methods of production. Cocktails made with gin and vodkas have undergone a renaissance in the U.S. and Canada, evoking memories of old movie stars from days gone by. And of course, who has not heard of the Mint Julep from Kentucky, or the Hurricane from New Orleans.
As with all cultures, there will be sports bars with large television screens and avid fans. If this is something you enjoy, be certain to check the season and game times to see when the next hockey, (American) football, soccer (association football), or baseball game is on and join the noisemaking.
North America is the birthplace of another drinking trend that is spreading throughout the world: the Fake Irish Pub. These establishments will usually be decorated with nicknacks from Ireland and may even have an authentic looking 19th century interior. Sometimes the interior is actually imported from a real Irish pub that has gone out of business. The bar menu almost always consists of Guinness, Harp, and Jameson. Fake Irish pubs may seem tacky to those who have been to the real thing, but they are a genuine part of the landscape in the U.S. and Canada and are often among the most popular bars in town. If you're in a major American city on St. Patrick's Day, a visit to one of these establishments is a must.
Drinking ages vary by country. In the U.S., a government-issued ID, demonstrating its holder is 21 or above, is required to purchase or consume alcohol. Availability to purchase will vary as well; some states issue liquor licenses more broadly allowing you to find alcohol in many shops and stores (California, Washington); while others may only be purchased in state run shops (Utah), or licensed bars and restaurants. In Mexico, the drinking age is 18, sending many young US border residents into the casinos and nightclubs on weekends. In Canada, the drinking age (18 or 19) will vary by territory and province. The drinking age is 18 throughout Central America, though enforcement certainly varies.
To really experience life in the United States, a small bed and breakfast is the way to go! Bed and breakfasts, which are usually run by the owners who live on the property, will give you a better feel of what it's like to "be an American". Many of these owners have traveled widely, read widely and have knowledge of their area to guide you to those unique experiences in the United States.
Most places in North America are occasionally affected by severe weather. Since mountain ranges run from north to south, storms can bring dramatic temperature changes. Cold weather is a seasonal concern in parts of the continent; see winter in North America.
While hardly present in dogs in the USA rabies is a concern when bitten in Central America or a bat in the US. As rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms show (there is only one case of symptomatic rabies being survived by a human documented in the medical record) have a rabies vaccination before you head out and get to a doctor as soon as possible if you are bitten.
Tropical diseases such as dengue and malaria are endemic to much of Central America, especially rural areas and the Caribbean side. If you want to go to Panama you will need a certificate of yellow fever vaccination.
The Zika virus has spread through much of Central America, but it is advisable to check official government advisories and individual country guides on Wikivoyage before you go, as the situation can vary drastically between or even within countries. Zika is particularly dangerous to the unborn and thus pregnant women might want to postpone travel to affected areas.
You should check if your phone operates on the North American frequencies - if it's a quad-band cell phone it probably will, at least for GSM (a few also support North American 3G bands). If it doesn't you won't be able to call, receive calls, or send or receive messages while in North America.
As a further wrinkle, North America was one of the few to widely use CDMA (a 2G system still supported by Sprint and Verizon stateside, but now abandoned in Canada). CDMA is not GSM compatible; CDMA handsets are not required to provide a removable SIM card. It is therefore common for North Americans to have to replace the entire handset (and not just a SIM) when switching to a new provider, even within the same country.